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Essential Elements

44 45 QuarkS, lEPtonS mESonS fundamental families The everyday matter of the universe is made of up and down quarks and their two lepton cousins, the electron and neutrino. This is the first generation of indivisible fundamental particles. At higher energies, such as in cosmic rays, a second, similar but heavier, family of four is found, with strange and charm quarks and two more leptons, the muon and the muonneutrino. At greater energies still a third, even more massive, family appears see opposite top. Each family also exists as its antimatter twin. Composites of quarks are called hadrons, and take three forms baryons made from three quarks, antibaryons formed of three antiquarks, and finally mesons, which are quarkantiquark pairs. Hadrons alone are subject to the strong colour force. All particles have spin, a complex gyrotational symmetry. The quark and lepton matter families have spin 1 2 , magically having to turn around twice before looking the same. Particles with half spins 12, 32, 52 ... are called fermions see slugs below. All other particles have integer spins 0, 1, 2... and are known as bosons. Mesons and the forcecarrying gauge bosons are the primary examples. A selected few are on page 54.
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